Notes are occasionally introduced into a melody
for a particular effect or embellishment.
The time of these notes being not used to complete the required time of a measure but taken from the note that follows.
A turn is compused of three grace notes placed before or after a principal note. In the first instance the small notes are written and in the second they are expressed by the sign
The trill or shake is composed of two notes struck alternately and following each other regularly in the gamut. It has a principal note, which is expressed and a secondary note, not always
written, but understood to be above the other. It is indicted by the letters tr
Abbrevations - when several notes of the same kind and the same name follow in succession, they are expressed as follows:
A whole note with a dash
signifies that the time is to be made up of eight notes as if thus written
Or a half-note written thus